来自 | 斯伦贝谢
编译 | 吕凡胜
Primo PAC携带液易于混合和操作。该携带液主要由三部分构成：基础油作为连续相；盐基作为内相用以增加携带液密度；PrimoSurf作为乳化剂用以确保基础油能与盐基稳定兼容。该无固相携带液可以实现盐基密度高达13.6 lbm/gal（1.63SG），确保井控作业的稳定。
Primo PAC携带液的特别之处在于它的操作简便。利用常规地面及井下管理手段，该液体可以通过离心泵和混合罐实现分批混合。该携带液的优势在于，可以与钻井泥浆充分兼容，从而消除水基隔离液及常规驱替手段所带来的问题。Primo PAC携带液对剪切不敏感，即使是在作业间漫长的静态期，该携带液也能保持性质稳定。
作为反相乳化钻井液开发和应用的领军者，M-I SWACO拥有无与伦比的全球布局能力。借助于其先进的科技，M-I SWACO正致力于完井技术方面的改进。
Primo PAC技术配合斯伦贝谢强大的资源整合能力，极大地提高了工作效率。Sand CADE砾石填充设计评估软件能够精准预测各种参数，比如摩擦压力和α波高度。Primo PAC携带液能够与AquaPac系统和轻质填充剂技术兼容，轻质填充剂技术能够应对裸眼填充作业中压力低于压裂压力的问题。
PrimoPAC fluid: The stable, reusable solution for optimal OHGP integrity
Synthetic- or oil-base reservoir drill-in fluids often are used to drill wells in formations with reactive shales that are susceptible to water-induced instabilities such as swelling and collapse. The transition to an openhole gravel-pack (OHGP) completion, which typically relies on a brine-base carrier fluid and a spacer, can be extremely problematic when water-sensitive shales are present.
Reduce the costs, impact, and problems associated with openhole gravel-pack completions.
Newtonian fluid rheologies
Low viscosity at bottomhole static temperature
Solids-free density up to 13.6 lbm/galUS [1.63 SG]
Temperature stability up to 300 degF [149 degC]
Specific QA/QC protocol
Gravel pack simulation with SandCADE* gravel-pack design and evaluation software
Proppant settling rate comparable to brine
Reusability as a carrier fluid
Recyclable with synthetic- or oil-base mud system
Enables alpha/beta gravel packingin wells drilled with synthetic- or oil-base mud systems
Prevents cross-fluid incompatibility issues
Eliminates shale stability and dispersion issues
Reduces overall rig time and fluid costs
Promotes seamless well completion with Schlumberger services
Simplifies well site logistics
Elevates environmental profile
Newtonian oil-base gravel packing The novel PrimoPAC fluid mitigates these issues with a simple, stable solution.
The uniquely engineered fluid delivers Newtonian fluid rheologies that maintain low viscosity even at up to 300 degF
[149 degC] bottomhole static temperature. This allows you to remain in a nonreactive oil-base environment from drilling through completions with a simplified displacement that eliminates fluid-fluid compatibility and shale stability issues during gravel packing.
Applied synergistically with Schlumberger AquaPac* integrated water-packing system, PrimoPAC fluid is ideally suited for any horizontal, deviated, or vertical well drilled with synthetic- or oil-base mud and completed with an openhole gravel pack.
Due to its low Newtonian viscosity, PrimoPAC carrier fluid is a perfect fit for alpha/beta gravel packing in high-angle, long-reach wells in the open hole, where it promotes fast proppant settling and successful placement of the alpha wave.
Easily mixed; versatile fluid PrimoPAC fluid is simple to mix and maintain with minimal logistical requirements. It requires only three components: base oil for the continuous phase, brine droplets for the internal phase to provide density, and PrimoSurf† emulsifier to ensure that the base fluid and brine work together and remain stable. This solids-free carrier fluid can be formulated for the full range of brines to a density of up to 13.6 lbm/galUS [1.63 SG] for ensured well control and stability.
One of the main benefits of the PrimoPAC fluid is its reusability as a carrier fluid
on subsequent jobs. This helps minimize volume and lower costs. There are distinct QA/QC protocols in place to determine whether the fluid can be reused. Depending on internal brine phase, once the fluid is deemed nonusable, it may be recycled as part of the synthetic- or oil-base mud.
The bottom line—PrimoPAC fluid presents a viable solution for reducing the issues, costs, and environmental impact of your next openhole gravel-pack completion.
Newtonian rheologies deliver fast-settling alpha/beta packing
The differentiation of PrimoPAC fluid
is its simplicity. The fluid’s minimal components are batch-mixed using basic centrifugal pumps and mixing tanks with straightforward surface and downhole management. Its value is in the carrier fluid’s full compatibility with the mud used to drill the well, which eliminates the water-base spacer and facilitates displacement. PrimoPAC fluid is insensitive to shear and remains stable even during prolonged static periods between jobs.
As an industry pioneer in the development and application of invert emulsion drilling fluids with an unmatched global infrastructure, M-I SWACO uses its inherent knowledge and transfers that technology into the completions arena. Integrating PrimoPAC fluid with the tremendous resources and ingenuity of Schlumberger further accentuates efficiency. SandCADE gravel-pack design and evaluation software accurately predicts various parameters, including friction pressures and alpha-wave height. PrimoPAC fluid is compatible with the AquaPac system and lightweight proppant technologies that mitigate the challenge of staying below the fracture pressure in an openhole gravel pack.
Improve your bottom line while mitigating environmental impact Above all else, PrimoPAC fluid is reusable and recyclable, considerably minimizing the volume of interface slop for disposal and effectively reducing your costs and environmental affect.
Used carrier fluid is put through our stringent QA/QC protocol. When it passes, it is used again as a carrier fluid. If the fluid fails to pass our standards for a carrier fluid, it may be sent to the mud plant for use as premix for oil-base drilling fluid, depending on the brine.
This cost-effective carrier fluid also carries an environmental seal of approval worldwide, including full accreditation to stringent North Sea toxicity specifications.
Combine oil-base fluid with superior gravel packing
The fluid leverages the industry-leading invert emulsion fluid expertise of
M-I SWACO with the unparalleled openhole gravel-pack engineering capabilities of Schlumberger.
PrimoPAC fluid proves itself in the field
An operator in the North Sea had been drilling wells in a field with an oil-base drill-in fluid and was completing the wells with an openhole gravel pack using a brine-base carrier fluid. On a number of wells in the field, the operator was experiencing inefficient fluid displacement and incomplete gravel packing, resulting in production that fell short of the forecasted productivity index (PI).
For its subsequent gravel-pack completions, the operator decided to replace brine with the PrimoPAC fluid. The objectives were achieving complete gravel packing and improving PI while reducing costs and environmental impact that is associated with the high volume of slop from previous gravel packs.
The operator’s objectives were exceeded, with 100% gravel-pack efficiency as reflected in complete placements. Further, production rates were well above the expected PI. The fluid was reused on subsequent wells, and the slop volume was reduced from the 30–40 m3 previously generated to 5–10 m3 , reducing the operator’s costs and environmental footprint. The fluid remained very stable for a couple of months while being stored between wells.